Psittacidae

The family Psittacidae is one of three families of true parrots, and consists of two subfamilies, the Old World or Afrotropical parrots of Psittacinae) and the New World or Neotropical parrots of Arinae.[1] The family numbers approximately 10 species in the Old World, and 148 species in the New World,[2] and included several species that have gone extinct in recent centuries. Some of the most iconic birds in the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among the New World parrots and the African grey parrot among the Old World parrots. These parrots are found in tropical and subtropical zones and inhabit Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean islands, sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Two parrots, one extinct, formerly inhabited North America.[3]
Psittacidae
Neotropical and Afrotropical parrots
Temporal range: Eocene-Holocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Superfamily: Psittacoidea
Family: Psittacidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Subfamilies

Psittacinae
Arinae

The family Psittacidae is one of three families of true parrots, and consists of two subfamilies, the Old World or Afrotropical parrots of Psittacinae) and the New World or Neotropical parrots of Arinae.[1] The family numbers approximately 10 species in the Old World, and 148 species in the New World,[2] and included several species that have gone extinct in recent centuries. Some of the most iconic birds in the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among the New World parrots and the African grey parrot among the Old World parrots. These parrots are found in tropical and subtropical zones and inhabit Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean islands, sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Two parrots, one extinct, formerly inhabited North America.[3]

This family likely had its origin early in the Paleogene period (66-23 mya) after the western half of Gondwana had separated into the continents of Africa and South America, before the divergence of African and New World lineages c. 30-35 mya. It is estimated that the New World parrots (Arinae) and by implication Old World parrots, last shared a common ancestor with the Australian parrots (Cacatuidae) c. 59 mya.[4] The data place most of the diversification of psittaciforms around 40 mya, after the separation of Australia from West Antarctica and South America.[5][6] Divergence of Psittacidae from the ancestral parrots resulted from a common radiation event from what was then West Antarctica into South America then Africa via late Cretaceous land bridges that survived through the Paleogene.[7]

Taxonomy

The family Psittacidae was introduced (as Psittacea) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815.[8][9] The recently revised taxonomy of the family Psittacidae, based on molecular studies, recognizes the sister clade relationship of the Old World Psittacini and New World Arini tribes of subfamily Psittacinae,[10] which have been raised to subfamily ranking and renamed Psittacinae and Arinae. Subfamily Loriinae and the other tribes of subfamily Psittacinae are now placed in superfamily Psittacoidea of all true parrots which includes family Psittacidae.[11]

References

  1. ^ Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright & Richard Schodde. (2012) A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26–40
  2. ^ "Zoonomen: Zoological Nomenclature Resource". 
  3. ^ Forshaw, J. (2000). Parrots of the World, 3rd Ed. Australia: Lansdowne. pp. 303, 385. 
  4. ^ Tavares, Erika; Yamashita, Miyaki (Jan 2004). "Phylogenetic Relationships Among Some Neotropical Parrot Genera Based on Mitochondrial Sequences". The Auk. 121 (1): 230–242. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0230:prasnp]2.0.co;2. 
  5. ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O; Hertwig ST (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38: 2176–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x. 
  6. ^ Wright, et.al, T. (Oct 2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385Freely accessible. PMID 18653733. 
  7. ^ Remsen, Van. "Proposal (599) to South American Classification Committee: Revise classification of the Psittaciformes". Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  8. ^ Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815). Analyse de la nature ou, Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés (in French). Palermo: Self-published. p. 64. 
  9. ^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 140, 252. 
  10. ^ Collar, N. (1997). Birds of the World, Vol.4. del Hoyo. p. 241. 
  11. ^ Joseph, et.al (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)". Zootaxa (3205): 26–40. 
منبع: ویکی پدیا

پربازدیدترین

Image

Core-based statistical area

A Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) is a U.S. geographic area ... ویکی پدیا
Image

The New Republic

The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary ... ویکی پدیا
Image

کریستف رضاعی: آهنگساز فیلم باید ذهن کارگردان را بخواند/ موسیقی زندگی‌ام است

کریستف رضاعی آهنگساز برنده سیمرغ بلورین سی‌وپنجمین دوره جشنوار ... بیتوته

جدیدترین ها

Image

NORDEFCO

NORDEFCO (Nordic Defence Cooperation) is a collaboration among ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Democratic Party of Wisconsin

The Democratic Party of Wisconsin is the affiliate of the Demo ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Alice Barlow

Alice Barlow (born 9 August 1991), is an English actress and s ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Channel A (TV channel)

Channel A Corporation (Hangul: 주식회사 채널에이; Hanja: 株式會社 채널에이), k ... ویکی پدیا
Image

KooKoo

KooKoo is the debut solo album by American rock singer and act ... ویکی پدیا
Image

The Mike Douglas Show

The Mike Douglas Show is an American daytime television talk s ... ویکی پدیا
Image

American robin

The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbir ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Area codes 215 and 267

215 and 267 are the North American telephone area codes for th ... ویکی پدیا

جدیدترین ها در این موضوع

Image

NORDEFCO

NORDEFCO (Nordic Defence Cooperation) is a collaboration among ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Democratic Party of Wisconsin

The Democratic Party of Wisconsin is the affiliate of the Demo ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Alice Barlow

Alice Barlow (born 9 August 1991), is an English actress and s ... ویکی پدیا
Image

Channel A (TV channel)

Channel A Corporation (Hangul: 주식회사 채널에이; Hanja: 株式會社 채널에이), k ... ویکی پدیا
Image

KooKoo

KooKoo is the debut solo album by American rock singer and act ... ویکی پدیا

پربازدیدها در این موضوع

Image

Core-based statistical area

A Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) is a U.S. geographic area ... ویکی پدیا
Image

The New Republic

The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary ... ویکی پدیا
Image

کریستف رضاعی: آهنگساز فیلم باید ذهن کارگردان را بخواند/ موسیقی زندگی‌ام است

کریستف رضاعی آهنگساز برنده سیمرغ بلورین سی‌وپنجمین دوره جشنوار ... بیتوته
Image

کنترل فشار خون بدون دارو

فشار خون بالا برای هر فردی یک عامل نگران کننده و تهدیدآمیز به ... برترین ها
Image

Wikipedia:WikiProject on open proxies

Please report IP addresses you suspect are open proxies below. ... ویکی پدیا

سایر مطالب

بالا
Powered by TayaCMS